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What is the nature of suffering according to Buddhism?

In Buddhism, suffering is considered to be an inherent part of human existence. The Buddha taught that all living beings experience suffering or "dukkha" due to the impermanence and instability of the physical world. This includes not only physical pain and discomfort, but also mental anguish and dissatisfaction.

According to Buddhist teachings, suffering is caused by craving and attachment, which lead to a sense of self or ego that is ultimately illusory. The goal of Buddhism is to achieve liberation from suffering by following the Eightfold Path, which includes ethical conduct, mindfulness, and meditation. Through these practices, one can develop wisdom and insight into the true nature of reality and ultimately achieve a state of enlightenment or "nirvana."
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